November 2022 Aztlander Zoom

“Classic Maya Enema Ritual Iconography” with Dr. Nicholas Hellmuth

Recording on YouTube: https://youtu.be/2ADeaLJhWrU

Early Classic and Late Classic polychrome Maya ceramics show enema rituals and the associated bibs, syringes, and enema jugs. For jugs, Dr. Hellmuth showed the giant multi-gallon ceramic containers of the liquid and also the smaller jugs of identical shape that hold only a quart or liter. The smaller jugs are more confusing since they are present in parades and self-sacrifice scenes on polychrome ceramics that may have no relation with enemas. The enema scenes include self-injection (by the individual man) or injection by females to men. Men clothed as jaguars are frequently seen in enema rituals. This discussion documents the history of discovery of enema rituals first published by Peter Furst and Michael Coe in 1977. Within three months of that release, Hellmuth made even more discoveries. He has continued his research since then to the present. The studies of Peter De Smet on which plant chemicals were used in an enema by the ancient Maya will also be discussed. This research won the Ig Nobel Prize 2022 for art history for Dr. Hellmuth and Dr. Peter De Smet. The iconographic aspect was updated for this presentation.

Dr. Hellmuth is director of FLAAR USA and FLAAR Mesoamerica. FLAAR stands Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research, and Dr. Hellmuth manages a large team at their office in Guatemala City. Technical assistant Paul Nuñez Rouanet helped Dr. Hellmuth with this excellent presentation. The live-streaming event was hosted by Jim Reed.

AZTLANDER MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAS; SEPTEMBER 2022


CLICK ON LINK BELOW TO OPEN AZTLANDER
https://aztlander.files.wordpress.com/2022/09/aztlander-v2-n9-5.pdf

Greetings Aztlanders !

Welcome to your September Aztlander. We’ve got another 30 pages worth of scholarly articles, newsworthy posts in the news from across the Americas, notices of up-coming live-streaming and in-person events, and links to many program recordings now preserved on YouTube that you may have missed.

The cover features a jade-colored jaguar to tie into this month’s Aztlander zoom featuring Dr. Nicholas Hellmuth and the discovery of the Tomb of the Jade Jaguar to take place on Monday, September 19.

Dr. Hellmuth is director of FLAAR, the Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research, based in Guatemala. His FLAAR Reports are Internationally known for their expert knowledge in the field that covers the flora and fauna of the Mayalands.

If you’re a fan of this year’s Aztlander zooms, you will recognize Dr. Hellmuth, as he always tunes in with interesting questions and comments. Be sure to join us for his coverage of one of the most lavish royal tombs ever excavated, a discovery he made while only 19 years old, working for the University of Pennsylvania at Tikal.

We present an announcement for a new book by Mark Van Stone (together with Paul Johnson) titled “Maya Mold Made: Virtual Impressions of Ancient Figurine Molds”. Mark will be our Aztlander live-stream presenter on October 10, Indigenous People’s Day!

Carl D. Callaway submitted an excellent article titled “Time and Ancestry Among the Ancient Maya”. Carl is an art historian and archaeologist currently teaching in Austin, Texas. For 35 years, he has traveled extensively throughout Central America with interests in Precolumbian art, architecture, astronomy, and writing. His current research focus is the Maya hieroglyphic texts that record the creation of the Maya universe. He will be our Aztlander live-stream presenter on December 12.

Our next scholarly focus article may surprise you, but I know it will intrigue you, and perhaps captivate you. I present a synopsis of Chapter 3 from “Reconsidering Olmec Visual Culture: The Unborn, Women, and Creation” by the esteemed researcher and scholar Carolyn E. Tate, titled” The Sowing and Dawning of the Human-Maize Seed”. These ideas have been discussed by the academic crowd for about 10 years now, but it’s all new to me, and I think it might be new to you also. Wait until you see what we have in store for you!

Our good friend, artist Steve Radzi, has submitted illustrations of two Maya sites this month, Uaxactun and Dzibanche. Thank you, Steve! Keep them coming!

Please enjoy your September Aztlander as you enjoy a long holiday weekend.

Talk about labor, this issue is a labor of love!

Jim Reed, Editor

Access this YouTube hyperlink to view the recording of Mike’s September lecture

https://youtu.be/6Q__LwXR8gk

AZTLANDER MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAS

AUGUST 2022

Enjoy your August Aztlander e-newsletter:

Our August issue is jam-packed with scholarly articles, noteworthy posts in the news, announcements of up-coming zoom and in-person events, and lots of important video recordings that you may have missed.

We share scholarly articles by Michael Ruggeri, W, George Lovell, and Janice Van Cleve.

Michael Ruggeri is our August 29 live-streaming presenter with his program: “Mesoamerican Influences on Southwest Rock Art”.

Share this August issue with those you care for, stay safe and healthy.

CLICK ON LINK BELOW TO DOWNLOAD

https://aztlander.files.wordpress.com/2022/08/aztlander-v2-n8.pdf

Monday June 13, 8:00 PM ET

Aztlander Zoom

“Cacao and Jade: The Diffusion of the Calendars Along Preclassic Maya Trade Routes”  

Our understanding of pre-Columbian trade routes derives more from archaeology than is the case with many of the other textually based societies found worldwide. Archaeologists reconstruct trade and exchange by documenting the distribution of raw materials and finished goods with respect to their sources of acquisition and production. The ancient Maya civilization had an advanced trade system consisting of short, medium, and long trade routes, along with a robust market for a range of goods and materials. Ancient trade routes spanned the Americas from northern South America all the way up to the US Southwest. 

This presentation by Jim Reed, editor of The Aztlander monthly enewsletter and the Institute of Maya Studies Explorer newsletter, includes all new visuals and an extensive collection of new maps to tell the story of cacao and jade.

Here is the zoom link

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/84322919509

Aztlander Magazine of the Americas: June 2022

Volume 2, Number 6


AZTLANDER ZOOM AND VIDEO


May 23, 8:00 PM, ET

Our Next Aztlander Zoom Lecture

“Millennium on the Meridian: Political History of the Ancient Southwest”
The great Stephen H. Lekson


Here’s the zoom hyperlink: 
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/88509395942

Our Latest Aztlander Zoom Recording now on YouTube 

“Early Mesoamerican Cities: Urbanism and Urbanization in the Preclassic Period”
with Dr. Michael W. Love
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyZl6Vdh9Dk


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AZTLANDER ZOOM LECTURES NOW ON OUR YOU TUBE CHANNEL

“Cahokia In the Real World” with Dr. Alice B. Kehoe 
https://youtu.be/ypX1sY_Lr2c

Alice Kehoe is Professor of Anthropology, emeritus, at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This lecture presented strong evidence of Cahokia’s Mexican connection, ties it to an origin as a native American type of dispersed towns, and interprets it as such a Late Woodland trading town that linked to Cholula, the most powerful trading empire of its time. Kehoe restores Cahokia to its place in history.

Alice first visited Teotihuacán in Mexico at the end of a summer in the excavation of a site in Durango, Mexico. Back then, the ancient city had not been restored to the glory we see today. Pachuca obsidian green blades lay on the avenues along with potsherds, yet its monumental grandeur was overwhelming. The following summer, Kehoe visited Cahokia. Cahokia was overwhelming, in part because of its obvious close resemblance to ancient Mexican cities. By the late 1960s, when Lewis Binford led a revolution in American archaeology turning to statistics instead of cultural comparisons, Cahokia’s tie to Mexico was obvious.

Dr. Alice Beck Kehoe has conducted archaeological and ethnohistorical research in the Northern Plains/Canadian Prairie, Tiwanaku, Dolni Vestonice, and traveled in Asia and Mesoamerica following Precolumbian contacts. Host: Jim Reed of The Aztlander.

“At Home with the Aztecs: An Archaeologist Uncovers Their Daily Life” by Michael E. Smith 

https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=aztlander

Michael E Smith is one of the leading international authorities on the Aztecs, with extensive experience excavating at Aztec sites. He is currently a professor at Arizona State University. He is an archaeologist with two research themes: The Aztecs, Teotihuacan, and other societies in ancient central Mexico, and comparative urbanism.


He has directed fieldwork projects at numerous sites in the provinces of the Aztec empire in central Mexico. His fieldwork focuses on the excavation of houses and the study of daily life. He has published seven books and numerous scholarly articles on the Aztecs; his books include the award-winning “At Home with the Aztecs”.

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Aztlander April Zoom Event

Friday, April 8 • 7 pm CT • 8 pm ET
Our live streaming event will feature Dr. Alice Beck Kehoe with a program titled:

“Cahokia In the Real World”

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/82742644972?pwd=b1l4VGVLN1BJT3hqdksxZitPaERUZz09

Alice Kehoe visited Teotihuacán in Mexico at the end of a summer in the excavation of a site in Durango, Mexico.  Back then, the ancient city had not been restored to the glory we see today. Pachuca obsidian green blades lay on the avenues along with potsherds, yet its monumental grandeur was overwhelming. The following summer, Kehoe visited Cahokia. Cahokia was overwhelming, in part because of its obvious close resemblance to ancient Mexican cities. By the late 1960s, when Lewis Binford led a revolution in American archaeology turning to statistics instead of cultural comparisons, Cahokia’s tie to Mexico was obvious. 

This lecture presents strong evidence of Cahokia’s Mexican connection, ties it to an origin as a native American type of dispersed towns, and interprets it as such a Late Woodland trading town that linked to Cholula, the most powerful trading empire of its time. Kehoe restores Cahokia to its place in history.
Dr. Alice Beck Kehoe has conducted archaeological and ethnohistorical research in the Northern Plains/Canadian Prairie, Tiwanaku, Dolni Vestonice, and traveled in Asia and Mesoamerica following Precolumbian contacts. She is Professor of Anthropology, emeritus, at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Folks, I’ve seen Alice present in an AIA zoom in February. She is really good, very knowledgeable. Please plan to be there with us!

AZTLANDER MARCH ZOOM EVENT

Thursday, March 10, 8:00 PM ET/7:00 CT

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/89217088066?pwd=RGNSeFZ6bjlhSFFSSHo2UHlZMmpJQT09

“At Home with the Aztecs: An Archaeologist Uncovers Their Daily Life”

The great Michael Smith

At Home with the Aztecs provides a fresh view of Aztec society, focusing on households and communities instead of kings, pyramids, and human sacrifice. This new approach offers an opportunity to humanize the Aztecs, moving past the popular stereotype of sacrificial maniacs to demonstrate that these were successful and prosperous communities. Michael Smith engagingly describes the scientific, logistic and personal dimensions of archaeological fieldwork, drawing on decades of excavating experience and considering how his research was affected by his interaction with contemporary Mexican communities. Through first-hand accounts of the ways archaeologists interpret sites and artifacts, the book illuminates how the archaeological process can bring ancient families and communities to light. Smith’s research also redefines success, prosperity and resilience in ancient societies. Michael’s zoom will be suitable not only for those interested in the Aztecs but in the examination of resilient households and communities across space and time.

*Michael E. Smith is one of the leading international authorities on the Aztecs, with extensive experience excavating at Aztec sites. He is an archaeologist with two research themes: (1) The Aztecs, Teotihuacan, and other societies in ancient central Mexico, and,(2) comparative urbanism. He has directed fieldwork projects at numerous sites in the provinces of the Aztec empire in central Mexico. His fieldwork focuses on the excavation of houses and the study of daily life. He has published seven books and numerous scholarly articles on the Aztecs; his books include the award-winning “At Home with the Aztecs” (2016), the textbook, “The Aztecs”  (3rd edition, 2012), “Aztec City-State Capitals” (2008), and “Rethinking the Aztec Economy” (co-edited by Nichols, Berdan
& Smith, 2017). He  now focuses on the study of urban life, society, inequality and prosperity at the ancient city of Teotihuacan.

Smith’s second major theme – comparative and transdisciplinary research on urbanism – has developed since his arrival at ASU in 2005. By analyzing ancient cities using concepts and methods from contemporary urban studies, Smith is exploring the similarities and differences among cities throughout history and around the world. Neighborhoods, wealth inequality, the provision of urban services, and patterns of scaling regularities are among the few urban universals, and Smith is part of several transdisciplinary research groups addressing these topics, These include an informal working group at ASU and the Santa Fe Institute to determine whether the regularities of urban and settlement scaling (worked out for contemporary cities) also apply to ancient cities. This project investigates cities and urbanism at the most fundamental level: the interactions among people in built environments. Smith also publishes on comparative empires, economies, and systems of social inequality. Smith’s teaching focuses on Mesoamerican archaeology, comparative urbanism, and archaeological method and theory. 

Zoom link
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/89217088066?pwd=RGNSeFZ6bjlhSFFSSHo2UHlZMmpJQT09#success

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AZTLANDER ZOOM THURSDAY

There’s an Aztlander live streaming event Thursday night February 10 at 8 pm ET featuring Phil Wanyerka* with a program titled:

“Where the Earth Meets the Sky: Defining Sacred Geography
at an Early Woodland Earthwork Complex in Northeast Ohio”

Click on this hyperlink to join in:

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/82962890852?pwd=VUxPRWpTOS92SURNaWNtN0lFK3pTQT09

Geophysical and archaeological investigations have been conducted for the past five years at the Fort Hill Earthwork Complex (site 33CU1), one of only two known prehistoric earthwork complexes, located in Rocky River Valley of Northeast Ohio. The site is located at the eastern-end of a 100 foot-high, steeply-sided plateau, consisting of a line of three earthen embankments each with its own external borrow ditch. Our investigations suggest that the earthwork was built during the Early Woodland Period by the Adena Culture (1,000 –100 BCE).

*Phil Wanyerka in his own words: “I teach at Cleveland State University (CSU) and do local fieldwork in Northeast Ohio, most recently working on a 2,300-year-old (Early Woodland, Adena) earthwork site. My research is concerned with exploring the interrelationships between language, culture, and writing with a real focus on ancient Mesoamerica.

Get into Ancient North American cultures! Plan to be there with us Thursday evening!

AZTLANDER JANUARY ZOOM LECTURE

January 24, 8:00 PM ET • 7:00 PM CT

“Who Will Be Our Sustainers?”: Gods, People,and Human Mediation in the Popol Vuh”

With Allen Christenson

The ancient Maya saw themselves as intimately interconnected with the natural world, but it was nature of a certain kind – that which is dependent on humanity for its existence. The earliest Maya literature to have survived the Spanish Conquest in the early sixteenth century, particularly the Popol Vuh, attempted to explain the origins of chaotic nature as the first in a series of unsuccessful stages of creation leading ultimately to an agriculturally-centered world of predictable cycles of life, death, and regeneration, mediated by humans. In Maya belief, even gods are not self-sustaining and require human mediation for their existence.

Zoom link at the time of the event;
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/84384022022?pwd=ZVZpYjVHRXRIRTEyditBS3lubDh5QT09#success

AZTLAN MAGAZINE; ALL VOLUMES

VOLUME 2, NUMBER 1

https://aztlander.files.wordpress.com/2022/01/aztlander-v2-n1-4.pdf

VOLUME 1, NUMBER 5

https://aztlander.files.wordpress.com/2021/12/aztlander-v1-n5-7.pdf

VOLUME 1, NUMBER 4

https://aztlander.files.wordpress.com/2021/11/aztlander-v1-n4.pdf

VOLUME 1, NUMBER 3

https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn:aaid:scds:US:c59937ca-d84a-4611-83c7-3372d3820298

VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2

https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/track?uri=urn:aaid:scds:US:b0385338-db8e-40aa-92eb-3357bed67806

VOLUME 1, NUMBER 1

https://documentcloud.adobe.com/link/review?uri=urn:aaid:scds:US:1b2091d7-7645-4eb9-8429-d6532b8e28fe#pageNum=1

Our Next Aztlander Zoom

Tuesday, December 14, 2021 • 8:00 PM ET • 7:00 PM CT

Our December 14 Aztlander zoom event will feature Brad Lepper, Senior Archaeologist 

of the Ohio History Connection’s World Heritage Program:

“Ohio’s Great Serpent Mound and the Effigy Mounds of Wisconsin: Shared Symbols, Shared Stories”

Access and bookmark this zoom hyperlink:  
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/88391378355

Our Next Aztlander Zoom Event

Tuesday, November 16, 2021 • 8 pm ET • 7 pm CT

Hohokam and Mimbres Rock Art and Ideology
with Allen Dart, Executive Director of the Old Pueblo Archaeology Center


Access and bookmark this zoom hyperlink: 

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/85908866154 


Note: We’ve found that for some, its better to copy and paste this zoom link into a browser window.


And our 3 previous Zoom events;

Chocolate Trade Between the Ancient Southwest and Mesoamerica with Michael Ruggeri

A Cave for All Seasons: Naj Tunich Cave, Peten, Guatemala, with Barbara MacLeod, via Aztlander Zoom

Non-Maya Glyphs at Chichen Itza, with Dr. Bruce Love



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AZTLANDER MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAS VOLUME 1-3; NUMBER 1

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AZTLANDER MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAS VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2

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AZTLANDER MAGAZINE OF THE AMERICAS VOLUME 1, NUMBER 3

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November 2022 Aztlander Zoom

“Classic Maya Enema Ritual Iconography” with Dr. Nicholas Hellmuth

Recording on YouTube: https://youtu.be/2ADeaLJhWrU

Early Classic and Late Classic polychrome Maya ceramics show enema rituals and the associated bibs, syringes, and enema jugs. For jugs, Dr. Hellmuth showed the giant multi-gallon ceramic containers of the liquid and also the smaller jugs of identical shape that hold only a quart or liter. The smaller jugs are more confusing since they are present in parades and self-sacrifice scenes on polychrome ceramics that may have no relation with enemas. The enema scenes include self-injection (by the individual man) or injection by females to men. Men clothed as jaguars are frequently seen in enema rituals. This discussion documents the history of discovery of enema rituals first published by Peter Furst and Michael Coe in 1977. Within three months of that release, Hellmuth made even more discoveries. He has continued his research since then to the present. The studies of Peter De Smet on which plant chemicals were used in an enema by the ancient Maya will also be discussed. This research won the Ig Nobel Prize 2022 for art history for Dr. Hellmuth and Dr. Peter De Smet. The iconographic aspect was updated for this presentation.

Dr. Hellmuth is director of FLAAR USA and FLAAR Mesoamerica. FLAAR stands Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research, and Dr. Hellmuth manages a large team at their office in Guatemala City. Technical assistant Paul Nuñez Rouanet helped Dr. Hellmuth with this excellent presentation. The live-streaming event was hosted by Jim Reed.

Our Next Aztlander Zoom

Monday, November 21, 8:00 PM EST • 7:00 PM CT

“Classic Maya Enema Ritual Iconography”

with Dr. Nicholas Hellmuth, FLAAR Mesoamerica


Early Classic and Late Classic polychrome Maya ceramics show enema rituals and the associated bibs, syringes, and enema jugs. For jugs, we’ll show the giant multi-gallon ceramic containers of the liquid and also the smaller jugs of identical shape that hold only a quart or liter. The smaller jugs are more confusing since they are present in parades and self-sacrifice scenes that may have no relation with enemas. The enema scenes include self-injection (by the individual man) or injection by females to men. Men clothed as jaguars are frequently in enema rituals. 

The discussion will document the history of discovery of enema rituals first published by Peter Furst and Michael Coe in 1977. Within three months, Hellmuth made even more discoveries. He has continued his research since then to the present. The studies of Peter De Smeton which plant chemicals were used in an enema by the ancient Maya will also be discussed.


Join the Zoom here:

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/89340702821

“The Tomb of the Jade Jaguar” with Dr. Nicholas Hellmuth


Access this hyperlink to view the recording: 

https://youtu.be/dz4ppkqi4Zg

Dr. Nicholas M. Hellmuth had beginner’s luck to discover one of the most richly stocked royal burials of the entire ancient Maya realm (Tikal Burial 196). He accomplished this while still a student at Harvard, while working on the University of Pennsylvania archaeological project at Tikal, Guatemala. It is rare that an archaeologist has an opportunity to find the burial chamber of one of the great royals of an ancient civilization. This presentation was really special, actually breaking the zoom 100 participant limit ! It includes a short video at the end of the Q&A where Dr. Hellmuth joking presents samples of the kinds of enema paraphernalia that the ancient Maya utilized in honor of recently winning an Ig Nobel prize for his work investigating Maya enema usage.

And please subscribe to our Aztlander YouTube channel while you’re there !


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Monday June 13, 8:00 PM ET

Aztlander Zoom

“Cacao and Jade: The Diffusion of the Calendars Along Preclassic Maya Trade Routes”  

Our understanding of pre-Columbian trade routes derives more from archaeology than is the case with many of the other textually based societies found worldwide. Archaeologists reconstruct trade and exchange by documenting the distribution of raw materials and finished goods with respect to their sources of acquisition and production. The ancient Maya civilization had an advanced trade system consisting of short, medium, and long trade routes, along with a robust market for a range of goods and materials. Ancient trade routes spanned the Americas from northern South America all the way up to the US Southwest. 

This presentation by Jim Reed, editor of The Aztlander monthly enewsletter and the Institute of Maya Studies Explorer newsletter, includes all new visuals and an extensive collection of new maps to tell the story of cacao and jade.

Here is the zoom link

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/84322919509

OUR NEXT AZTLANDER ZOOM EVENT

Monday, April 25 at 8 pm ET,

 you can witness a live streaming event that will feature Dr. Michael W. Love with a program titled:

“Early Mesoamerican Cities: Urbanism and Urbanization in the Preclassic Period”

Access and bookmark this zoom hyperlink:

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/83784570808

Not too long ago, the term “Formative Period Urbanism” would have struck many Mesoamerican archaeologists as an oxymoron. Yet, research over the past 20 years has demonstrated that the Formative Period was not a mere prelude to the Classic Period (300-900 CE), but that in many regions it exceeded the Classic; not only were there true cities in the Formative period, but they were as large or larger than those of the Classic. As one of the limited number of cases where urban centers developed independently, Mesoamerica plays a major role in the world-wide comparative analysis of first-generation cities and urbanism in general. World-wide models of early cities need updated data from the first-generation cities of ancient Mesoamerica. Dr. Michael W. Love is a Professor in the Anthropology department at California State University – Northridge. He just released a book, edited by him and Julia Guernsey; the same title as his program. Michael’s principal interests are in Mesoamerica, the development of social complexity, and household archaeology. His research to date has concentrated on the Pacific coast region of Guatemala and investigating the early complex societies found there during the Preclassic period. Please plan to join us on Monday evening !

RECENT AZTLANDER ZOOM LECTURES ON YOU TUBE

Our Aztlander live-streaming event recording featuring Phil Wanyerka is now on YouTube:

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ97iKGxpP5Byz2Re2KTG4g

Where the Earth Meets the Sky: Defining Sacred Geography
at an Early Woodland Earthwork Complex in Northeast Ohio

Geophysical and archaeological investigations have been conducted for the past five years at the Fort Hill Earthwork Complex (site 33CU1), one of only two known prehistoric earthwork complexes, located in Rocky River Valley of Northeast Ohio.

Phil Wanyerka teaches at Cleveland State University (CSU) and does local fieldwork in Northeast Ohio, most recently working on a 2,300 year old (Early Woodland, Adena) earthwork site. Phil is the Director of CSU’s Archaeological Fieldschool Program and is head of their archaeological curation lab. Phil is also the President of the Cleveland Archaeological Society.

Also, if you missed Allen Christenson’s excellent program, check out the recording of his zoom event:

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ97iKGxpP5Byz2Re2KTG4g

“Who Will Bee Our Sustainers?”:
Gods, People, and Human Mediation in the Popol Vuh

The ancient Maya saw themselves as intimately interconnected with the natural world, but it was nature of a certain kind – that which is dependent on humanity for its existence. The earliest Maya literature to have survived the Spanish Conquest in the early sixteenth century, particularly the Popol Vuh, attempted to explain the origins of chaotic nature as the first in a series of unsuccessful stages of creation leading ultimately to an agriculturally-centered world of predictable cycles of life, death, and regeneration, mediated by humans. In Maya belief, even gods are not self-sustaining and require human mediation for their existence.

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